Andover in the Revolutionary War
TOWN RECORDS :
"Voted, that the enlisted soldiers be furnished with bayonets at the expense of the town.
Voted, that a committee be chosen to collect the bayonets now in the hands of individuals in this Town and provide such a number of new ones as will be sufficiency to supply the minute men.
Voted, that the committee chosen at the last meeting procure bayonets collect as many as they can of those belonging to the Province by next Wednesday, two o'clock, P.M., that they procure one hundred more to be made as soon as possible and supply those firelocks that are effective which belong to the minute men with good bayonets as soon as may be."
FROM THE ESSEX GAZETTE NEWSPAPER
"Andover, Feb 2, 1775:
Last Tuesday at 2 o'clock P.M., the town foot companies of the 4th regiment of Militia in the County of Essex, Inhabitants of the North Parish in Andover, being mustered (after attending prayers for the direction of the God of armies), Col. Samuel JOHNSON, lately chosen first officer of said regiment, addressed himself to the companie and with great zeal recommended to them the necessity of enlisting themselves in to the serve of the province and in a short time fifty able bodied efficient men, being one quarter part of said companies - more than a third part of whom are heads of families and men of substance and Probity, willingly offered themselves : they were then escorted to an Inn, where they made choice of Captain, Thomas POOR, junr., for their captain, Ensign Benjamin FARNUM first lieutenant, and Samuel JOHNSON, junr. for second lieutenant. They then subscribed a covenant obliging them to conform to the Resolves of the former or any future Congress or General Assembly of the Province that hath or may have Relation to their Duty, and by said Convent subjected themselves to martial discipline for the term of one year from the time of their enlisting. And this day at two o'clock afternoon, when after attending prayers for direction, Col. JOHNSON enlisted forty-five able-bodied men as aforesaid and companies last mentioned, who immediately proceeded to make choice of Capt. Benjamin AMES for their captain, Lieut David CHANDLER first lieutenant and Isaac ABBOT for second lieutenant, and subscribed the convenient aforesaid. All being performed with great unanimity, seriousness and decorum, and the soldiers seeming rather to be animated than disheartened by the late disagreeable news contained in the king's speech."
There were four militia companies at Andover, containing in all four hundred men. The companies commanded by Captain Poor and Captain Ames, appear in the muster rolls of the "Lexington Alarm", in the regiment of Col. James FRYE. The rolls are listed below, and were enlisted by Col. Samuel Johnson.
Muster Roll of the Minute Men under the Command of Captain Thomas Poor of Andover in Colonel James Frye's Regiment from the Nineteenth of April, 1775, to the 25th of sd Month
|Thomas Poor, Capt.||Benjamin Parker, do||William Gordon|
|Benjamin Farnum, Lieut||Nehemiah Abbot, Private||Joshua Johnson|
|Samuel Johnson, 2 do.||John Barker, junr||Phineas Johnson|
|John Chickering, Sergt||John Barker, 3d||Isaiah Ingalls|
|Cyrus Marble, do||Jacob Barnard||Peter Johnson|
|Philips Farrington, do||John Clark||Abiel Lovejoy|
|Joshua Frye, drummer||Zechariah Chickering||Ephraim Lasey|
|Joshua Long, fifer||Thomas Clark||John Nichols|
|John Parker, corporal||Stephen Farrington||Timothy Noyes, jr|
|Peter Farnum, do||John Farrington||Asa Osgood|
|John Johnson, do||Jonathan Gardner||Abraham Poor|
|Michael Parker||Jonathan Robertson||John Tyler|
|Stephen Poor||Jonathan Stevens||Simon Wardwell|
|Timothy Poor, jr||David Stevens||James Wiley|
|Enoch Parker||Darius Sessions||John Wilson|
|David Poor, jr||Amos Stevens||Samuel Carlton|
|Peter Poor, jr||James Stevens||Timothy Carlton|
|John Parker, jr|
"Each of the above named persons equipt themselves with fire arms and all accoutrements. THOMAS POOR, Captain.
Source: Lexington Alarm Rolls, vol xiii, p. 42
|Benjamin Ames, Capt||Jonathan Commins||Josiah Jones|
|David Chandler, Lieut||Nathan Chandler||Nathan Lovejoy|
|Isaac Abbot, Lieut||William Chamberlain||David Lovejoy|
|Benjamin More, Sergt||Joseph Chandler||Obadiah Lovejoy|
|Joshua Lovejoy, Sergt||William Dane||William Lovejoy|
|William Chandler, Sergt||Joseph Dane||Samuel Martain|
|Thomas Boynton, Sergt||Amos Durant||Perley McIntire|
|David Blunt, corporal||Abiel Faulkner||Phineas Osgood|
|Bixbe Abbot, corp.||Theophilus Frye||Joseph Parker|
|Eben'r Holbrook, corp.||George Holt||Carlton Parker|
|Moses Boynton, corp.||William Haggit||John Stevens|
|Joshua More, drummer||Joshua Holt||Nathaniel Toy|
|Caleb Abbot, rank and file||Jesse Holt||James Turner|
|Humphrey Holt||Jeremiah Wardwell-Pembroke||Nathaniel Abbot|
|John Herrick||Samuel Blanchard||Ephraim Johnson|
|Ezekiel Wardwell||Jonathan Boynton||Josiah Johnson|
|James Johnson||Peter Chandler|
Benjamin Ames, Capt.
source: Lexington Alarm Rolls, vol. xi, p. 189
For muster rolls of each regiment which marched from Andover to Cambridge on April 19, 1775 answering the alarms, see Historical Sketches of Andover, pages 302-304.
"The companies which went from Andover to Lexington marches through Tewksbury and Billerica toward the scene of action, but, learning of the fight w\and the retreat of the regulars, they turned and took the road in pursuit,. They did not, however, overtake the enemy."
Journal entries of Bimsley Stevens, Samuel Osgood, Thomas Boynton, James Stevens, are outlined and recited from on pages 304-313 of Historical Sketches of Andover
Captain Benjamin Ames's Company (presumably) at Bunker Hill
This return was made October 6, 1775, for the purpose of showing the men who had been eight months in service, and were, therefore, each to receive a coat as bounty. They enlisted February 1775. From Coat Rolls of Col. James Fry's Regiment, page 10.
|Benjamin Ames, Capt||Timothy Chandler||Ephraim Johnson|
|David Chandler, Lieut||Jonathan Cummings||Josiah Jones, Londonderry|
|Isaac Abbot, Lieut||Nathan Chandler||Nathan Lovejoy|
|Benjamin More, Sergt||William Chamberlain||Obadiah Lovejoy|
|Joshua Lovejoy, Sergt||Joseph Chandler, killed in battle, June 17th||David Lovejoy|
|Thomas Boynton, Sergt||William Chandler, Sergt||Stephen Chandler|
|William Lovejoy||David Blunt, corp.||William Dane|
|Samuel Martain||Bixbe Abbot, corp.||Joseph Dane|
|Peter Martain||Ebenezer Holbrook, corp.||Israel Herrick, Lewiston|
|Perley Mackintire||Amos Durant||Christopher Osgood, Blue Hill, ME|
|Moses Boynton, corp||Simeon Dresser||Joseph Parker|
|Abiel Faulkner||Joshua More, drummer||Theophilus Frye|
|Carlton Parker||James Chandler, do||George Holt|
|Salem Poor *see below||Caleb Abbot||William Haggit, killed in battle, June 17th|
|John Stevens||Nathaniel Abbot, discharged August 20th||Joshua Holt|
|Nathaniel Toy||Solomon Ames||Israel Holt|
|James Turner||Philip Abbot, killed in battle, June 17th||Jesse Holt, died June 21st|
|Jeremiah Wardwell, Pembroke||Humphrey Holt||Samuel Blanchard|
|William Holt||Ezekiel Wardwell||Jonathan Boynton|
|John Herrick||Israel Herrick, Lewiston||Peter Chandler|
The following names are pulled from the muster roll of Company under the command of Captain Charles Furbush in Col. Bridges Regiment, to the first of August, 1775. These are the names of soldiers from Andover.
|Charles Furbush, Capt.||John Baldwin, private||Jeremiah Blanchard, Lieut|
|William Bailey||Jeremiah Blanchard||London Cittizen|
|Jeremiah Morrel, Corp||Jacob Amas, Corp||Charles Furbush, jr|
|Thomas Smith, Corp||Simeon Furbush, drummer||Cuff Blanchard|
|Cesar Porter||Daniel Longren||Thomas Hagget|
|Samuel Bealy, killed June 17th||John Broughton|
Additional muster rolls, in varying format and content can be found in Historical Sketches of Andover.
** Bravery for a Negro Slave, Salem Poor **
State Records confirm that Salem Poor, a slave owned by Mr. John POOR, shot Lieutenant-colonel Abercrombie. The record in the archives states the following:
"Recommendation of Salem Poor, a negro, for bravery.
To the Honl General Court of the Massachusetts Bay, The subscribers begg leave to Report to your Honble House, which we do in justice to the Caracter of so Brave a man that came under out observation. We declare that a Negro Man called Salem Poor, of Col. Frye's Regiment, Capt. Ames' company, in the late battle at Charlestown, behaved like an experienced officer as well as an excellent soldier; to set forth Perticluars of his conduct would be tedious. Wee would only begg leave to say, in the Person of this sd. Negro centres a Brave & Gallant soldier. the Reward due to so great and Distinguished a Caracter wee submit to the Congress.
Cambridge, Dec. 6, 1775
Jonathan Brewer, Col.
Thomas Winon, Lt-col.
Wm. Prescott, Colo
Ephraim Cary, Lieut Joseph Baker, Lieut
Joshua Reed, Lieut.
spelling errors occur in record.
INJURED AND KILLED
A quote from Historical Sketches of Andover, pages 325-6
"It is sometimes supposed by persons unacquainted with the facts that accurate and careful records are on file in the State Archives in regard to the soldiers who fought in the battles of the Revolution; that the names of the killed and wounded in any battle are readily to be found. But such is by no means the case, as every one knows who has had occasion to make search. The rolls were returned mainly for the purpose of obtaining the pay due the soldiers, and they are often deficient in particulars of residence and in other respects, and moreover, they do not cover the entire service, but are fragmentary and imperfect, and, to a great extent, without chronological arrangement.
The only roll found which shows the losses sustained of the men at Bunker Hill is one of the company of Captain Ames, containing a list of names, and "guns that is lost", "coats that is lost", "Blankets that is lost"," great coats that is lost", "Knapsacks that is lost". This indicates the panic and haste in which the fleeing men dropped whatever impeded their retreat."
Boynton's journal says :"We lost William Haggot, Joseph Chandler, and Philip Abbot. Wounded, Lieut. Isaac Abbot, Sergt. Joshua Lovejoy, James Turner, Jeremiah Wardwell, Stephen Chandler, and Israel Holt, of our company."
Andover and Harvard College Library
Andover was chosen as one of the places to safely store the library of Harvard College. It was originally decided to send the whole library to Andover, but was later changed to store it in several locations.
The following are bills which were found for the expenses of removal of the books:
"Bill for Carting Books from Cambridge to Andover
July 22, 1775.
Colony of Massachusetts Bay to the following persons, viz. To Joshua Blanchard, jr.
To carting one load of Books belonging to Harvard College from Menotomy to Mr. Samuel Osgood's in Andover, 20 miles, L1.0 0 DR.
signed, Josiah Blanchard
Colony aforesaid to John Lovejoy Abbot, Dr.
To carting one load of Books from Menotomy to the house of George Abbot, Esq., in Andover, 17 miles, L0. 17. Dr.
signed John L. Abbot
There are also bills of Benjamin Ames, jr and Philemon Dane, for carting books the same distance, and the books were brought to the house of Mr. Samuel Osgood, the receipt is from MR. Phillips, in the amount of three pounds, seventeen shillings, paid in full.
Journal entries written by James Stevens can be found in Historical Sketches of Andover from pages 335 to 338.
The following is the roll of Colonel Johnson's regiment in March 1776:
|Rank of companies||Towns||Captains||1st Lieutenants||2nd Lieutenants|
|1||Andover||John Peabody||Samuel Johnson||Cyrus Marble|
|2||Haverhill||Nathaniel Marsh||Israel Bartlett||Ebenezer Gage|
|3||Bradford||Nathaniel Gage||Daniel Kimball||Joseph Mulliken|
|4||Boxford||Jacob Gould||John Dorman||Jedediah Stickney|
|5||Methuen||John Bodwell||John Huse||Samuel Cross|
|6||Andover||John Abbot, jr||Moses Abbot||Samuel Jenkins|
|7||Haverhill||Samuel Merrill||Stephen Webster||Samuel Crowel|
|8||Bradford||John Savory||Thomas Stickney||Moses Herriman|
|9||Andover||Nathaniel Lovejoy||John Adams||John Frye|
|10||Haverhill||Timothy Johnson||Ephraim Eliot||John Page|
|11||Andover||Joshua Holt||William Dean||Jonathan Abbot|
|12||Methuen||James Jones||Nathaniel Messer||Stephen Webster|
|13||Boxford||John Cushing||Samuel Runnels||Asa Merril|
|14||Haverhill||Joseph Eaton||Isaac Snow||Samuel Hazeltine|
|15||Methuen||David Whitier||James Mallon||John Parker, jr|
Samuel Johnson, John Whittier, Samuel Bodwell, field officers, Andover, March 26, 1776.
An exact account for all the men enlisted to serve in the continental army for the term of nine months agreeable to a resolve of the General Court of the 26th of April, who belong to the Fourth Regiment of Militia in the County of Essex, of which Samuel Johnson, of Andover, is Colonel. Andover, June 2nd, 1778.
from Mass Rev. Rolls, vol xxviii, p. 165 1/2.
|Robert Gray, jr||17||dark||5.9||do||do||do|
There are 38 other names, all men from Methuen, Bradford and Haverhill.
A return of those Men Enlisted into the Continental Service for the term of Three Years or during the War and Returned for the Second Foot Company in the Town of Andover.
from Mass. Rev. Rolls, vol. xli, p. 64
|Benjamin Wild||Jacob Russel||Isaac Lovejoy|
|Silus Blunt||Isaac Russel||James Turner|
|James Turner, jr||Mark Winter||Benjamin Eaton|
|Thomas Day||George Blunt||John Knights|
|Palfrey Downing||Cesar Cogswell||Jonathan Hutchinson|
|Benjamin Webb||Cato Foster||Caleb Abbot|
|Daniel Holt, jr||John Crosby, Boston||James Parker|
|Edward Herrick||John Quin, Boston|
signed John Abbot, Jr., Capt. Andover, Feb 16th, 1778.
Obituary Notice for Colonel Samuel Johnson, 1796.
"In 1777, he commanded a regiment detached from the county of Essex, and led them to victory and glory in the memorable action on the 7th of October, where his firmness and courage was particularly distinguished. His regiment was a part of that respectable yeomantry whom General Burgoyne honored as the owners of the soil, men determined to conquer or die. This was the Fourth Massachusetts Regiment which Col. Johnson commanded through the war, and with promptness and punctuality answered the requisitions of Government in a manner highly satisfactory to the several corps which composed the regiment.
From Exeter in 1776, by Charles H. Bell.
Military Officers in Service in the Revolutionary War:
|Brigadier general Joseph Frye||Captain Benjamin Ames||Captain Joshua Holt|
|Colonel James Frye||Captain Henry Abbot||Captain Samuel Johnson|
|Colonel Samuel Johnson||Captain John Abbot||Captain John Peabody|
|Colonel Thomas Poor||Captain John Adams||Surgeon of 1st Regiment, Dr. Thomas Kittredge|
|Major Samuel Osgood||Captain Benjamin Farnum||Adjutant general Bimsley Stevens|
|Captain Charles Furbush|
A list of Civil Officers of the Revolutionary Period
second quarter of the Town's Second Century
Representatives to the General Court.
|1771||Samuel Phillips, Esq.|
|1772||Samuel Phillips, Esq.|
|1773||Mr. Moody Bridges|
|1774||Capt. Moody Bridges (2)|
|1775||Mr. Samuel Phillips, jr. (3)|
|1776||Mr. Samuel Phillips, Capt. Joshua Holt, Samuel Osgood, Esq., Mr. Nehemiah Abbot|
|1777||Colonel Samuel Johnson|
|1778||Colonel Samuel Johnson, Mr. Samuel Phillips|
|1779||Mr. Samuel Phillips, jr., Samuel Osgood, Esq.|
|1780||Colonel Samuel Johnson, Capt.. Joshua Holt|
|1781||Capt.. Peter Osgood, Capt. Joshua Holt|
|1782||Capt. Joshua Holt|
|1783||Joshua Holt, Esq|
|1784||Hon. Samuel Osgood, Esq.|
|1785||Joshua Holt, Esq|
|1786||Joshua Holt, Esq.|
|1787||Mr. Peter Osgood, jr|
|1788||Capt. Peter Osgood|
|1789||Capt Peter Osgood|
|1790||Capt. Peter Osgood|
|1791||Capt.. Peter Osgood|
|1792||Capt. Peter Osgood|
|1793 to 1800||Joshua Holt, Esq.|
(2) Provincial Congress, October 1774 - March 1775. Samuel Osgood
(3) Provincial Congress, May 1775. General Court, July
|1780||Samuel Osgood, Esq.|
|1781-1801||Samuel Phillips, jr. Esq.|
1781, Honorable Samuel Osgood, Representative to Congress
1801, Samuel Phillips, Esq., Lieutenant Governor
1781-1798 Samuel Phillips, Justice to the Court of Common Pleas.
1770 - Thomas Bragg, Deputy Sheriff.
All records were abstracted from Historical Sketches of Andover by Sarah Loring Bailey. Please refer to the book for a great deal more information regarding Andover during this period. The muster rolls, records and other data here are only a select few.
Transcribed and copyright by JAS 2004-2008